Friday, June 26, 2020
Rheem New Zealand . Survey Research report (Research Paper Sample) Content: Marketing Research: Rheem New Zealand Case Name University Marketing Research: Rheem New Zealand Case Executive Summary Business communication is a critical factor that determines the success of a company. Competition is currently stiff in every industry, consequently, companies have to embrace communication strategies that have identifiable returns and easily accomplishable for an organization. It is important to note that the decision to adopt a specific marketing strategy, the decision should be based on critical analysis of the problem and plausible methods implemented to implement the campaign. An effective market research follows a systematic analysis of data collected in line with the variables that would give practical results to influence change in a marketing strategy. It is essential for companies and organizations to identify the specific medium of advertisement and communication with the consumers. For example, some companies adop t strategies that overlook the traditional communication channels while others employ technology and computer applications entirely in marketing. It is important to note that the decision to choose a medium is a factor of consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ preferred source of information. Rheem New Zealand is a company that is not certain whether the marketing strategy is appropriate in line with the products and the customers. The major challenge the company has is to exemplify the effectiveness of the current communication strategy and if possible determine the best action to take. In addition to this, the company is also seeking to determine if the previous exercises have been a waste of company resources. The purpose of this research is to explore the various factors that influence the purchase of water heaters in New Zealand and also to demonstrate if there is a possible correlation between the consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ decision to purchase a product is influenced by the competitorsÃ¢â¬â¢ adverti sing strategy. Most importantly, this research is designed to examine the correlation between consumer behaviour and a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s preferred marketing strategy. In this present study, Rheem New Zealand Limited, the leading water heating manufacturer in New Zealand is used as a case study. On the contrary, the implications of the findings will answer a number of questions that have bothered the company. Firstly, the management would want to know if the current end user oriented market marketing strategy is really effective and not a process that is unnecessary and depleting the resources. In line with this, the research questions adopted in this study are intended to enable the researcher identify the various aspects that the marketing team is currently missing. Secondly, it is imperative for the company to note that present day marketing entails more than just communicating with the consumer, but a process that is complex and requires adequate and factual consumer response o n various factors that influence the decision making process. The case is further complicated by the fact that most of the products the company sells have seasonal applications and that continuous market analysis and especially consumer behaviour is essential in all business aspects. The data analyzed in this study are derived from the field and the market in which Rheem operates. This research study is therefore vital for the company given the fact that it is intended to explore the possible inadequacies in the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen marketing strategy. Consequently, the management is able to make informed decisions on the state of the marketing strategy that the company should adopt. Decision tree Research in marketing involves a series of tactical and strategic decisions based on the desired outcomes. The complexity of the decision problem that each research design adopts is often the major factor to consider when identifying the appropriate marketing research. According t o scholars, the initial process in decision making is identifying the problem and consequently proceeding to evaluation of the factors that lead to the occurrence of the identified problem. McQuarrie (2006) writes that the in planning a market survey, the researcher should identify and articulate a specific problem that necessitates the research. In essence, any market research is intended to offer solutions to a specific market problem that impacts the performance of the company in a market. Business decision makers therefore rely on the findings of a research to make decisions on a problem. Rheem manufacturing company is in a situation where the very strengths that the company has had are no longer trusted. Secondly, the management is worried that the impacts of a failure to effect fast and strategic changes to its marketing strategy would be detrimental in the near future given the level of competition in New Zealand. It is notable that the main problem in this case is that th e company is not certain and doubts the marketing strategy that the company has apparently employed in the last few years. The second problem the company encounters is that the consumers have changed and are in constant search and access to information that could lead them to other companies. The effects of this place profitability and the success of the company at stake. Rheem has in the past adopted a business to business marketing approach and has opted to use the sellers and its outlets to show case the company products. However, the management is concerned that there is not enough monetary resources to adequately support the growth and also confirm the sustainability of the drive and public shows as it had done in the past. From the above problems, the company has to stick to a strategy that will ensure that the major reasons that contribute to effective consumer communication are highlighted and adequately analyzed. The company has to employ this information in the managem ent of future research methods and in determining the course of future marketing approaches. In regard to the present study, the major research questions this study will explore include the following. What is the extent to which water heaters are significant to the entire New Zealand population? The second research question is that what are the most important aspects of a water heater for an end consumer in regard to price, energy efficiency, brand, longevity, warranty period, the installation and running costs? What are the factors that influence the purchase of water heaters in New Zealand, and which among these factors are determined by human interaction with others and with qualified personnel such as plumbers and other doctors? The above research questions adequately cover the sixteen items contained in the questionnaire. To begin with, the first study question is intended to explore the level of the different aspects of question six in the questionnaire which is intended to elaborate the level to which different families and respondents view hot water either as a necessity or a luxury. The second study question is in line with the questionnaire because the entire survey is an emphasis on the direct or indirect impacts of external forces in the individual decision to purchase a water heater. Additionally, the research question is intended to exemplify the relationship between the purchasing ability in relation to other home needs. It should be noted that this influenced by the prevailing economic status of an individual. Data collection Research design and procedure determine the outcome of a research. Data collection methods are many and vary from each research study to the other. In regard to this, it is important for a researcher to identify the most appropriate data collection method that will enable effective data collection and equally influence coherence. The study problems and the expectations of the research influence the data collection met hod a researcher embraces. The study design used in current study was based on qualitative analysis of sample data randomly collected in various households in New Zealand. The procedure in this study involved the use of questionnaires which had sixteen questions in total. The sample size was 90 with a gender parity consideration. This sample population consisted of 45 females and 45 males drawn from the same geographical location. This was done to ensure that the disparities in weather conditions do not result into discrepancies in sample data analysis. The data was collected based on the questionnaires. On the contrary, the respondents were not allowed to take the questionnaires home. This was a random check and the researchers were aware of the fact that there would be difficulties and minor problems in data collection and the conduct of the entire research in general. Based on a simple answer and open ended questions in some cases, the researchers gave the questionnaire to t he respondent and further proceeded to read the questions as they appeared in the questionnaire and the marking the answer as the respondent gave answers. Each interview session was scheduled to run for thirty minutes maximum time in order to enable the research to proceed in the shortest time possible before the respondent got distracted and the concentration wanes. The researchers then embarked on home based survey after the individual survey in order to ensure that the research questions are adequately answered. Furthermore, it was assumed that those surveyed in the first interview would be part of larger families or below the average age to give adequate information on the issues in the survey. Most importantly, the participants were allowed to consult with the family members on what they thought influenced their previous heater purchases and the result of the decision. In the process of a research, the researcher often encounters a number of problems. These problems could resu lt in poor response or unsatisfactory data sampling and compilation. ...
Friday, May 29, 2020
Issues with the SAT October 5, 2013 Robert Sternberg has issues with the SAT. And so do many others. Bard College recently announced a decision to completely shake up their admission metrics (photo credit: Ben Ramirez). Do you have issues with the SAT? If so, you might want to read this. Theres a piece in Bloomberg BusinessWeek entitled Whats Holding American Students Back? The SAT by Peter Coy that we wanted to draw to the attention of our readers. In the piece, the current president of the University of Washington, psychologist Robert Sternberg, is cited as an example of a one-time American student who would not have succeeded had it not been for one teacher who recognized his aptitude. When he was in elementary school, Sternberg did poorly on IQ tests and other teachers on account of this testing expected him not to be at the top of the class. But the conviction of one teacher changed his course in life. Sternberg argues that the SAT and the ACT are modern examples of that IQ test he flunked at in elementary school. He thinks that these two exams are, in essence, IQ tests in disguise. According to the piece in Bloomberg BusinessWeek, Sternberg says he thinks college applicants should also be asked to demonstrate their creativity, practical intelligence, and even wisdom, qualities which are in shorter supply than cleverness. If you look at why this country is so screwed up, he says, itÃ¢â¬â¢s not because the people running it have low SATs.' Fair point. So whats the solution? Well, 850 four-year colleges are now SAT or ACT optional. Is that the trend the country will follow in the future? Do you think an alternative to the SAT or ACT can be created? Let us know your thoughts on issues with the SAT and ACT and proposed solutions. We look forward to hearing from you.
Monday, May 18, 2020
Sample details Pages: 23 Words: 6921 Downloads: 10 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Narrative essay Did you like this example? The aim of this chapter is to develop the knowledge and understanding on the subject matter as well as providing the theoretical background for the study. Therefore, it was essential that a desk review be made on previous studies focusing on the topic of the risk taking propensity among entrepreneurs. The literature review included some relevant studies that were done in the past particularly those related to the issue of this study. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Review About Entrepreneurship And Risk Finance Essay" essay for you Create order In addition, studies related to the general issues of entrepreneurship were also reviewed to shed additional insight on the subject matter. The chapter starts with the discussion on the concept of entrepreneurship with special reference to the entrepreneurial process and how entrepreneurs play their role in the process. It is then followed by discussion on the micro and small business sector in Malaysia in terms of the working definition and its importance to the national economy. Next, the definition of risk and its variants are discussed in greater detail. The chapter ends with the discussion of the literature related to risk taking propensity. Entrepreneurship is a process universally connected with the founding of business ventures, acquiring or expanding an existing business. Entrepreneurs have been considered as bearers for risks and uncertainties in making business choices (Knight, 1921), and make innovations for new goods, new methods of production, new markets, and new types of industrial organization (Schumpeter, 1934). Hull, Bosley, and Udell (1980) concurred that entrepreneurs assumed risks with the intention to expand the businesses. Meanwhile, Brockhaus (1980) recognized an entrepreneur as a manager or owner of a business who is not employed elsewhere. However, Cooper and Dundleberg (1987) defined entrepreneur as a person who either own or manage a business. While McClelland (1961) described an entrepreneur as a business manager who has the responsibility as a decision maker and takes responsibility for the decision made. From the above definitions, it can be concluded that an entrepreneur is the owner or manager of an MSME, in which he or she may not be a founder but has a responsibility to make decision and take the risk and responsibility for the decision made. Entrepreneurship endeavours involve gathering of productive resources in an attempt to begin a business enterprise with the expectation of providing a reasonable income to the e ntrepreneur or small business operator. These resources include manpower, equipment and tools, money, time and basic raw materials which may entail some risks in procuring them. For example, the risk of not getting basic raw materials as needed to produce the product or damage to the equipment and tools means losses to the entrepreneur. These resources, along with their associated risk, should be recognized and managed to minimize losses and to increase profits. Hereditary risk exists in all the processes starting from the ideation, conceptualization, enterprise creation, commercialization and ending with the growth of the enterprise. The entrepreneurial process remains the same and the roles and nature of the entrepreneur are universal, regardless of industries. ÃâÃ ÃâÃ ÃâÃ Moreover, all businesses in the world face risk regardless of its size, thus they have to identify, assess, manage and monitor the organizations business opportunities and risks. The current b usiness disappointments are usually caused by entrepreneurs misjudgements, mismanagement of risk and changes in corporate governance requirements. There are also increasing stakeholder expectations for entrepreneurs to effectively manage all risks exist within an organization. 2.3 Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs) Micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) are and will continue to be the backbone of Malaysian economic growth. Undoubtedly, MSMEs contributes greatly to the economic strength in Malaysia. With the New Economic Policy introduced by government in 1971, Malaysian MSMEs were given the important task of hoisting new breed of Bumiputra entrepreneurs who would eventually grow into large business community in accordance with the social restructuring objectives of the policy. The policy has been able to create MSMEs whereby 30% of the businesses are owned by bumiputras. As of Mac 2005, a total of 518,996 MSMEs were registered in Malaysia (Census of Establishments and Enterprises, 2005, Department of Statistics Malaysia). Most of the MSMEs were found in the service sector, accounting for 86.5%. They contributed 27.3 percent of total manufacturing output, 25.8 percent to value-added production, owned 27.6 percent of fixed assets and employed 38.9 percent of the country workforce (SMIDEC, 2002). There were 192,527 establishments in the services sector and 186,728 (96.7%) of these are made up of MSMEs in Malaysia. Yusoff (2004) noted higher consumer spending and a record level of tourist arrival caused the services sector to grow by 6.8% in 2004. Strong expansion in all sub-sectors with transport and communication emanated the growth in the lead at 8.4% followed by wholesale and retail trade, hotels and restaurants (7.1%) and finance, insurance, real estate and business services (6.5%). MSMEs had become one of the main drivers of economic growth as the industries contribute 32% to Malaysias gross domestic product (GDP), account for 56% of total employment and 19% of total exports of the nation in 2007 (SME Annual Report, 2007). The definition of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is classified within the context of the country in which they operate, as typically, the concept varies according to country (Gunasekaran, Forker and Kobu, 2000). In the past, there was no common definition of micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in Malaysia. Many agencies defined MSMEs differently according to their own criteria based on annual sales turnover, number of employees or shareholder. The criteria should include paid-up capital, shareholders funds, sales turnover, and number of employees or a combination of these. In Malaysia, National Small and Medium Enterprise Development Council (NSDC), (2005), defined micro, small and medium enterprises as firms employing 150 full-time employees with sales turnover less than RM 25 million. This definition covers the manufacturing sector including agro-based, services, primary agriculture and ICT. Bank Negara Malaysia defined MSMEs as enterprises with shareholders funds of less than RM10 million. Meanwhile, the Small and Medium Industries Development Corporation (SMECorp) defined MSMEs as enterprises based on the annual sales turnover not exceeding RM25 million and number of full-time employees not ex ceeding 150. The criteria used in defining MSMEs are based on annual sales turnover and number of the MSMEs as postulated in Table 2.1 below. Table 2.1: Definitions of MSMEs in Malaysia Category Micro-enterprise Small enterprise Medium enterprise Manufacturing (including agro-based) and MRS No. of full-time employees: Less than 5 Annual Sales Turnover: Less than RM250,000 No. of full-time employees: Between 5 and 50 Annual Sales Turnover: Between RM250,000 and less than RM10 million No. of full-time employees: Between 51 and 150 Annual Sales Turnover: Between RM10 million and RM25 million. Services, primary agriculture and information and communication Technology (ICT) No. of full-time employees: Less than 5 Annual Sales Turnover: Less than RM200,000 No. of full-time employees: Between 5 and 19 Annual Sales Turnover: Between RM200,000 and less than RM1 million No. of full-time employees: Between 20 and 50 Annual Sales Turnover: Between RM1 million and RM5 million Sources: National Small and Medium Enterprise Development Council (NSDC), (2005) 2.4 Risk Risk become popular in the economics field in the 1920s and started to be the main focus in the academic discipline. Thus, the definition of risk has been extended within the area of decision making by various field of literature in management, environmental, insurance and psychology. Risk and its elements definition is complicated and multifaceted as it is viewed and considered differently depending upon the taxonomy that an individual utilizes it. Generally, risk refers to uncertainty concerning the occurrence of a loss (Redja 2005). Yates and Stone (1992) defined risk as the degree of uncertainty and potential loss which may follow from a given behaviour. Risk is also defined by Greene (1962) as the uncertainty as to the occurrence of an economic loss and, measurable uncertainty (Knight, 1921) or objectified uncertainty regarding the occurrence of an undesirable event (Willett, 1951). Apart from the dissimilarities in defining risk, two common themes are about uncertainty and loss. According to Crowe Horn, (1957), the term probability may have the connotation of likelihood to specific persons as compared to probability to others. This feeling of unpredictability of the actual results of a method contrary the possible expected outcomes introduces objectives suspicion about the outcome in given circumstances (Williams Heins, 1964). Once the event occurred, the differences can be measured in the actual versus expected outcome of an action but differs from the incidence of an unwelcome contingency (Althearn, 1962). Consequently, there is variability in the connotative definitions of risk between persons, society and ethos despite several general academic accords concerning the fundamental of risk. In addition to the facets of uncertainty and loss, there is the constituent of the future time component in the likelihood, predictive, possibility of risk. The multitude of descriptions of risk is due to the lack of agreement by scholars and the nature of ri sk itself. The word of uncertainty may be unique to a particular actor if the word of uncertainty refers to the component of risk and uncertainty as a state of mind of the individual processing the risk. Besides uncertainty, risk involves loss, or something that is undesirable. Loss may be more than financial or economic. Crowe and Horn (1957) defined loss as an involuntary reduction in the capacity of an entity to satisfy its wants. Therefore, it looks that scholars have disagreements in separating an individuals awareness, perception and attitude from the general concept of risk. Entrepreneurial Risk An entrepreneur is a risk taker and is prone to assume business risks. Any error in making business decision is a probable source of threat or opportunity in assuring the success of the business. The distinctiveness of entrepreneur businesses, rivalries and tight economic situations has obligated the entrepreneurs capability on predicting the business risks. Busenitz (1999) noted the basis of risk is that ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦the dominant theme running throughout the entrepreneurship literature is risk and how entrepreneurs are predisposed towards risky alternatives or how the should manage risk (p. 325). However, this statement contradicts with McCarthys (2000) statement on the risk that ÃÆ'Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â¬Å¡Ã ¬ÃâÃ ¦the risk construct dominates the literature on entrepreneurship and the ability to bear risk has been identified as the primary challenge facing entrepreneurs (p.563). Furthermore, Klein (1977) had summarized that the capacity to take risk as being an inherent attribute of the entrepreneurial venture as stated that if an entrepreneur is to profit from an unexploited potential, he must also inevitably deal with a greater degree of uncertainty. Business risks occur due to uncertainty about the future and the effect of current judgements.Therefore, business choices need to consist of an assessment of their outcomes and the possibility that the outcome may differ from expectation. Entrepreneurs confront the problem that the sum of tolerable risk is based on likelihood of unconstructive outcomes and reward is often comparative to the amount of risk taken. Bird (1989) differentiates risks to five types which four of them are clearly pertinent to any potential entrepreneurs such as economic risk, risk in social relations, risks in career development, psychological and health risk. The general concept of risk has been broken into several dimensions by several authors (see for example, Assael, 1981; MacCrimmon and Wehrung, 1986; Minkow ick, 1964; Mowen, 1987; and Robertson, Zielinski and Ward, 1984). These include financial risk, physical risk, social risk, professional risk, performance risk, opportunity cost risk and time risk. Meanwhile, Carroll, Siridhara and Finchman (1986) used the Atkinsons model (consumer model of risk perception) which resulted in a six dimensions to define risk among entrepreneurs as the decision to become an entrepreneur involves consumer risk. The dimensions included in the model are financial risk, social risk, psychological risk, performance risk, safety risk and convenience risk. However, Harrington and Niehaus, (2004) noted that in business several types of risks are present and can be applied to entrepreneur business decision making such as price risks, credit risks and pure risks. Price risks include market risks associated to the victory of the business plan, demand for the product, and issues of cost and price which include output price and input price risks. Romano et al, ( 2001) includes price risk to business-related financial risks involving credit, cash flow, foreign currency and working capital. Every business risks are not monetary, yet, a good deal of risk is inherent in companies and operations itself. It can be concluded that many of these risks resulted from pressures related to company growth, company culture and information management. Other type of business risks is credit risk. Credit risk is a chance and magnitude of financial loss involved in the spending of money. To quote Harrington and Niehaus, (2004), on the credit risk of the business risk: The risk that a firms customers and the parties to which it has lent money will delay or fail to make promised payments is known as credit risk. Most firms face some credit risk for account receivables. The exposure to credit risk is particularly large for financial institutions, such as commercial banks, that routinely make loans that are subject to risk of default by the borrower. When f irms borrow money, they in turn expose lenders to credit risk (i.e., the risk that the firm will default on its promised payments). As a consequence, borrowing exposes the firms owners to the risk that the firm will be unable to pay its debt and thus be forced into bankruptcy, and the firm generally will have to pay more to borrow money as credit risk increases (p.5). Raghavan, (2005) noted that Probability Default (PD) and Loss Given Default (LGD) were used to measure credit risk and default percentage is quite high in SME sectors as compared to the large corporate or entity. Finally, pure risk is another type of business risks. These risks affect business due to reduction in value of business assets such as wreck or demolition of construction, equipment, inventory, business records, or other property; recovery and replacement costs after fires, flooding, typhoon or other disaster; and loss of income during recovery. Pure risks also involve company losses due to shipping dama ges or losses occurring because of crimes such as misappropriation or robbery. Entrepreneurs face a range of pure risks that must be controlled and managed lest they endanger the future of the firms. This pure risk also includes legal liability for damages for harm to customers, suppliers, shareholders and also injury to employees resulting from accidents, harm product, professional malpractice, inappropriate business practices and mistakes or omission. Another type of pure risk is the risk which associated with paying benefits to injured workers under workers compensation laws including the risk of legal liability for injuries or other harms to employees that are not governed by workers compensation laws. Finally, the risk that the businesses agreed to make payments under employee benefits plans due to death, illness and disability to employees (Harrington and Niehaus, 2004). The figure below shows the major types of business risk. Figure 1: The Major Types of Business Risk Source: Harrington and Niehaus, 2004 Liles, (1974) recommended that new venture entrepreneurs, involved financial status, career opportunities and psychosocial health. The new venture also will face strain and loss of family and social relations. The private monetary risk that the entrepreneur perpetrates from a failed business can affect the major losses to the entrepreneurs, resulting in a lower standard of living. Liles (1974) also suggested that the potential entrepreneur is well counselled to analyze carefully the risks associated with his specific business proposal and then make a decision to undertake them because the financial and emotional consequences of failure could be devastating. Liles then concluded that the decision depends to a great extent upon the potential entrepreneurs perception of the risk involved. Raghvan, (2005), specify the risks to SME sectors include the following: 1. Constitution of business entity involves the constitution to be risky due to lack of professionalism and overdependence on one or two key person in deciding the important part in running the business. The decisions made will affect the success or failure in establishment and advancement of the business. 2. Leverage on financial structure occurs when the business entity limits the funds mobilisation efforts that a small and medium business enterprise can raise capital and borrow. 3 Tough competition and inadequate margin resulted from competition with bigger business, whereby a small and medium business enterprise face the pressure on the margin as they have to absorb according to bigger enterprise price as they cannot raise their price. 4. Low collection in account receivable gives effects to the strain on the liquidity position of the SME sector and may be the result of bank restricted their exposure to the sector. 5. Incapacity to go for technology advancement to help the sector optimized their available resources in the best way is because of little financial resources and poor ability for leveraging the financial structure. 6. High employee turnover in the small and medium business enterprise because of limited of growth prospects includes the possible loss of manpower and additional costs in the form of training and knowledge update that will results the operation continuity and lowering the productivity. 7. Micro finance which provided credits to small enterprise as to improve the standard of living will covered them under social entrepreneurial activities. Doubtfully, the risk of the lenders will be spreading under the sector. The approach of micro enterprise finance is through repayment incentive structure, streamlined administration and market based pricing adopting profit which leads to great transform in a cumulative causation triggered by credit to MSMEs. 8. Collateral Security exists when dealing with lenders and borrower particularly to banks. Banks would not on detailed investigation and analysis of borrowers business as they already have the protection which will reflect of credit-worthiness to lenders. 9. Bank lending to MSMEs is considered as the primary source of external finance to support the sectors growth in the country. Business owners have knowledge on the prospects of venture and risk facing their business than lenders that will set in the information asymmetry. The existence of information asymmetry makes the lenders respond by increasing lending margins to levels in excess of that which the inherent risks would require. Besides, banks also curtail the extent of lending and resort to what is known as Credit Rationing, notwithstanding the fact that MSMEs would be willing to pay a fair Risk Adjusted Cost of Capital. 2.6 Risk Taking Propensity The study of decision making behaviour categorizes the risk into three elements: risk perception, risk propensity and preparedness to take risk (Brindley, 2005). Brockhaus (1980) defined risk propensity: The perceived probability of receiving the rewards associated with success of a proposed situation, which is required by an individual before he will subject himself to consequence associated with failure, the alternative situation providing less reward as well as less severe consequences than the proposed situation. (p. 513) Risk taking can also be defined as one of the three dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation of a company and refers to the readiness of the organization to consign significant resources to opportunities that might be uncertain (Junehed and Davidsson 1998). Sitkin and Weingart (1995) defined risk perception as a subjective interpretation of expected loss which affected by individuals view of the uncertainty of the decision and the consequence of the dec ision. Meanwhile, risk propensity is usually defined as an individuals general tendency toward either taking or avoiding risk within a particular kind of decision context (Sitkin and Pablo, 1992). Risk propensity is a common tendency to accept or avert risks (Sitkin and Weigart, 1995). Summary of past trend of the selected research in risk propensity have produced mixed conclusions is tabulated in Table 2.1 (p. 23). Some studies have indicated no significant differences in risk taking propensities among entrepreneurs. Risk propensity and risk perception influence risk taking. Risky decisions will be made when the situations are of high risk propensity and low risk perception. Therefore, risk-taking initiatives should be more necessary in order to achieve good results in hostile markets. In other words, business owners or managers who dare to take more risks take actions that are more suitable and perform better. Abby and Slater (1989) noted that an organization which has an international vision, favorable perception and attitudes towards international business, is willing to take risk and has the capacity to engage positively in international business activities is likely to lead the company to business success. In order to minimize risks, entrepreneurs are required to identify which variables influence their business performance. If they have a higher risk-taking propensity, they positively affect the business performance. Begley (1995) defined risk-taking propensity as the willingness to take moderate risks. This means that when entrepreneurs are faced with different situations, they would probably show different risk propensities. At the same time, different entrepreneurs faced with the same situation may present different risk propensities. Entrepreneurs are willing to accept the uncertainty. They are distinctively able to start and orchestrate events that have risk consequences (Mitton. 1989). Some entrepreneurial studies conducted propose tha t successful entrepreneurs are moderate risk-takers (Bridge, ONeil, Cromie, 1998). Douglas and Shepherd (2002) found that those with a greater risk acceptance had stronger levels of entrepreneurial intention. McClelland (1961) found that individuals would have moderate propensities to take risk if they have high achievement needs. However, Liles (1974) argued that entrepreneurs frequently have to adopt uncertainty with respect to financial well-being, psychic well-being, career security and family relations. Groups risk propensity could be influenced by various variables. Among them was characteristic of the group as suggested by Sitkin and Pablo (1992) that outcomes associated with prior risky decisions can influence risk propensity with more positive outcomes leading to greater risk propensity. Prediction by people that groups with higher levels of collective efficacy (Gibson, McKeon and Ostrom, 2000) could have greater risk propensity because they feel more capable of handling problems that arise. Similarly, groups with more ambitious goals or groups that compete closely with other groups may have greater risk propensity because risk taking is necessary for their success. The environment was another variable that may also play a role in the risk propensity of groups. For example, the group may have greater risk propensity if risk is valued in a groups social environment (Stine-Cheyne, 2002). According to Moreland Levine, (1992), a group may have a greater risk propensity because it has less fear of failure if the group expects outsiders to provide help when it is needed. When the consequences of failure are smaller, a group may be more willing to take more risks. This relationship may be moderated, however, by the availability and value of outside help. Table 2.1: Selected Empirical Research of Risk Taking Propensity and Entrepreneurs Researcher(s) Sample Place Instrument(s) Results Brockhaus and Nord (1979) New founders (N=31), newly promoted managers (N=31), and newly hired managers (N=31) United States Choice Dilemmas Questionnaire (CDQ) No significant differences in risk taking propensity of the three groups. Brockhaus (1980a) New founders (N=31), newly promoted managers (N=31), and newly hired managers (N=31) United States CDQ No significant differences in risk taking propensity of the three groups. Sexton and Bowman (1983) Entrepreneurship majors (N=61) and non business majors (N= 113) United States Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) Personality Research Form E (PRF-E) CDQ Entrepreneurship majors higher in risk taking Sexton and Bowman (1984) Entrepreneurship majors (N=45) , business majors (N=75) and non business majors (N= 98) United States JPI PRF-E Entrepreneurship majors higher in risk taking Schwer and Yucelt (1984) Owners and small business managers (N=71) CDQ No differences in personal risk; other risks mitigated by age and education Masters Meier (1988) Male and Female owners/owner-managers and managers (N=50) United States CDQ No significant differences in risk taking propensity neither between owners and managers nor between males and females owners. Table 2.1: Selected Empirical Research of Risk Taking Propensity and Entrepreneurs (Continued) Researcher(s) Sample Instrument(s) Results MacCrimmon and Wehrung (1990) Business owners and Executives Canada CDQ -The greater success was related to greater risk taking. -Education was also found to be related to risk taking. -Age, seniority, number of dependents was inversely related to risk taking. Carland, J.W., III, Carland, J.W., Carland, J.A Pearce, J.W. (1995) Entrepreneurs (N=114), Small Business Owners (N=347) and Managers (N=387) South Eastern United States JPI Older respondents explained a lower of risk taking propensity than the younger. Respondents with higher level of education had higher propensities for risk taking, Female exhibited a lower level of risk taking propensity compared to male. Begley (1995), Business executive (N=239) New England JPI failed to identify whether the level of entrepreneurial risk taking was low, moderate, or high. Koiranen, Hyrsky and Tuunanen (1997) Entrepreneurs, Small business owners and managers (N=1000) In dia, Turkey and United States JPI -Americans were more inclined to assume risks. -Finnish entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers were more risk averse than Americans. -Americans males have a higher scores than Finnish males -No significant difference between female US entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers and their Finnish female counterparts Table 2.1: Selected Empirical Research of Risk Taking Propensity and Entrepreneurs (Continued) Researcher(s) Sample Place Instrument(s) Results Stewart, Watson, Carland and Carland (1998), Students (N=206) United States and Rusia JPI and CDQ CDQ failed to measure the construct of risk taking in the investigation. JPI was more successful; however, it has components which may not be well matched for measuring entrepreneurial risk taking. Hyrsky and Tuunanen (1999) Entrepreneurs, Small business owners and managers (N=1000) Finland and United States Carland Entrepreneurship index (CEI) American had greater risk taking propensity. Forlani and Mullins (2000) CEO of the firms (N=540) United States Risk Style Scale Differences in risk propensities among entrepreneurs on their new venture choices. Petrakis (2005), Small Businessmen of SMEs (N=120) Greek 13 risk measures by author. Risk propensity affects the way entrepreneurs decide to finance their venture and also affects the first performance principal component which includes the risk undertaken and the profit rate. Leko-Simic and Horvat (2006), Croatian exporters (N=300) Croatia 5 point Likert scale There is significant difference between risk taking and non-risk taking but do not have a very high risk-taking propensity when doing business internationally. Shivani, Mukherjee and Sharan (2006) Small Entrepreneurs (N=200) India Risk Attitudes Inventory designed by Gene Calvert (1993) -A substantial proportion of respondents have low level of risk taking propensity. -No differences between male and female respondents. Table 2.1: Selected Empirical Research of Risk Taking Propensity and Entrepreneurs (Continued) Researcher(s) Sample Place Instrument(s) Results Ozturk and Hancer (2006) Middle level hotel managers (N=106) Turkey Zalaskiewicz (2001) risk scale There was no significant relationship between the risk items and corporate entrepreneurship. Walker, Geddes and Webster (2006) Small business owners (N=1600) Western Australia Measures by author -Some gender differences with women being more emotionally risk averse than their male counterparts. -Younger people, irrespective of gender were more emotionally and financially risk averse compared to older people. There were differences between gender and age cohorts in regard to initial business start-up motivation. Nieuwenhuizen and Groenewald (2006), Owners of SMEs (N=50) South Africa Neethling Brain Instrument (NBI) -The majority of the identified successful, established entrepreneurs did have a strong tendency towards creativity and propensity for calculated risk taking. Naldi, Nordqvist, Sjoberg, Wiklund, (2007) CEOs of the SMEs f irms (N=2455) Sweden Entrepreneurial Orientation. -Risk taking is a distinct dimension of entrepreneurial orientation in family firms and that is positively associated with proactive ness and innovation. -Family firms do take risks while engaged in entrepreneurial activities; they take risk to a lesser extent than non-family firms. -Risk taking in family firms is negatively related to performance. G. Thamizharasi and N. Panchanatham (2010) Small and medium enterprise (N=120) India Not mentioned Risk taking propensity is very much influenced by age, income, marital status and type of ownership. Brockhaus and Nord (1979) found no significant differences in risk taking propensity among three sample groups that they studied. The sample group consists of 31 entrepreneurs who had initiated a new venture within the past three months, 31 managers who had been transferred to another organization and 31 managers who had been promoted in their organizations during the same period of time. Risk taking was measured using the Kogan-Wallach Choice Dilemma Questionnaires (CDQ). In another study, Brockhaus (1980) defined propensity for risk-taking as the perceived probability of receiving the rewards associated with success before the potential entrepreneur actually subjects himself/herself to the consequences associated with failures. Brockhaus examined the risk taking propensity among entrepreneurs using CDQ by Wallach Kogan (1959, 1961). The study tested three categories of individuals: business owner who has started their business for three months prior to the study, managers who had changed positions in their companies within three months prior to the study and managers who had changed employers within three months prior to the study. The researchers rationale using entrepreneurs close to the starting point of business enterprise would involve those that would finally fail, thereby eliminating bias from investigating only successful en trepreneurs. However, the study found no differences between the respondents scores and the normative Kogan-Wallach data which means that the distribution of risk taking propensities of entrepreneurs and managers were the same that they are moderate risk takers. A series of researches by Sexton and Bowman (1983, 1984, and 1985) concluded that higher propensity for risk taking was a characteristic which differentiate entrepreneurs from managers. The studies used instruments that researchers developed themselves by modifying test instruments based on Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) which included measurement of those traits which had previously been found to be significant higher in risk taking among entrepreneurship majors than business administration majors and non-business majors. A study by Ray (1986) had discovered a higher propensity for risk taking among entrepreneurs, particularly when confronted with business risk. Meanwhile, (Schwer and Yucelt, (1984) found that risk taking is moderated by business experience, age, education and type of business. A similar survey conducted by Masters and Meier (1988) examined a group of managers or small business owners who had attended management development workshops using Kogan and Wallachs Choice Dilemma Questionnaires (CDQ). The study also compared the mean scores of all respondents to the CDQ norms, the scores for male and female to each other, and the scores for small business owners for managers. The study found no significant differences in risk taking propensity among male and female entrepreneurs and concluded that the womens involvement and womens entry into business had bridged the gap between the difference in male and female scores on the CDQ. MacCrimmon and Wehrung (1990) studied the risk taking propensity among executives in Canada and United States. The results showed that the degree of success among business owners and executives was related to the degree of risk taking propensity. Educa tion was also found to be related to risk taking showing that business owners and executives who are less educated were less willing to take risk. However, the study found that age, seniority, number of dependents was inversely related to risk taking. The results concluded that those business owners and managers were not willing to take risks in business were not likely to succeed. Meanwhile a study by Carland, Carland and Carland (1995) investigated the risk taking propensity using the Risk Taking scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) by Jackson (1976). There were 848 respondents consisting of 114 entrepreneurs, 347 small business owners and 387 managers which were located in 20 states in the South-eastern United States using convenience sampling method. The study revealed that the owners displayed a higher level of risk taking compared to the managers. The study also looked at the differences among entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers which showed that a mong the three groups, entrepreneurs had the highest risk taking propensity, followed by small business owners and managers. Another part of the study was to examine the demographic differences of risk taking propensity such as gender, age and education. The findings indicated that older respondents exhibited a lower of risk taking propensity than the young ones. Respondents with higher level of education had higher propensities for risk taking and finally, female exhibited a lower level of risk taking propensity as compared to male. So, via the JPI, the research resulted in differentiation on demographic, as well as among entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers. Other study by Begley (1995), who conducted the research on 239 New England business executive found that risk taking propensity was the only trait on which founders and non-founders differed but failed to identify whether the level of entrepreneurial risk taking was low, moderate or high. Koiranen, Hyrsky and Tunnanen (1997) conducted a study to find out whether there was any difference on risk taking propensity between American and Finnish entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers. The study revealed that U.S entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers were more inclined to risk taking than their Finnish counterparts. The samples for this study were 1000 U.S entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers and 1000 Finnish entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers. The instrument used to measure risk taking propensity was the JPI. The result showed there were no significant difference between female US entrepreneurs, small business owners and managers and their Finnish female counterparts. Stewart, Watson, Carland and Carland (1998), examined the risk taking propensity of students using JPI and CDQ for the purpose of measurement comparison and validity assessment. The study used two samples of 138 students and 68 students from two universities using convenience sampling method to examine the differences in JPI and CDQ. The study found that the CDQ failed to measure the construct of risk taking in the investigation. Even though JPI was more successful, however, it has components which may not be well matched for measuring entrepreneurial risk taking. The researchers suggested entrepreneurship researchers should be more careful when trying to measure business risk taking propensity, and must not rely too heavily on a generic substitute. Hyrsky and Tuunanen (1999) measured the varying degrees of innovativeness and risk-taking propensity by Finnish and U.S entrepreneurs and small business owners found that the Americans (N=456) had greater risk-taking propensity than the Finns (N=434) who tended to be more conservative and risk-averse. The study used the Risk Taking scale of the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) by Jackson (1976) to measure the risk-taking propensities which includes 320 True-False statements consisting of 16 scales, eac h comprising 20 statements, and the scores of each scale ranging from 0 to 20. In elements of risk, risk perceptions and entrepreneurs propensities to take risk influence choices among potentially risky entrepreneurial venture survey by Forlani and Mullins (2000), respondents were CEO of the 540 firms listed in INC, Fortune and Business Week magazines of the fastest growing public companies in the United States. The respondents were contacted by fax to request their participation in the study and 210 agreed to participate in the study. The instruments were then mailed and asked to return via U.S mail to ensure confidentiality. The study found an effect of differences in risk propensities among entrepreneurs on their new venture choices. Das and Teng (2001) proposed a temporal framework of strategic risk behaviour in which the two temporalities were integrated with risk propensity and perceived decision context. The study also suggested individual risk propensity can manifest i tself with different saliencies in decisions involving different time horizons. The result showed a fairly clear divide the short-range side was dominated by situational factors (perceived decision context), while the longer-range side was influenced more by the dispositional risk propensity. Balabanis and Katiskea (2003) noted that risk taking propensity directly influenced by company size because larger companies have a greater pool of resources that gives more space to take risks and spread them among different products and markets. In addition, larger companies are unable to tolerate losses from unsuccessful entrepreneurial efforts. Therefore, level of risk taking propensity among larger companies was expected to be higher as compared with smaller companies. Petrakis (2005) investigated the risk propensity among 120 businessmen of MSMEs who own capital smaller than 10,000,000 Euros (EU definitions of MSMEs). The study found that risk propensity affected the way entreprene urs decide to finance their venture and also affected the first performance principal component which includes the risk undertaken and the profit rate. Leko-Simic and Horvat (2006) analyzed companys age, size and types of business as determinants of risk taking propensity on 300 Croatian exporters. They were randomly drawn from Croatian Chamber of Commerce database as 10% of active exporters. The samples were clustered into risk-taking and non-risk taking segments. The two clusters were analyzed with statistical inferential analysis against different aspects such as objective and subjective of export performance. The study found that there was significant difference between risk taking and non-risk taking but they did not have a very high risk-taking propensity when doing business internationally. Past studies by Shivani, Mukherjee and Sharan (2006) had used Risk Attitudes Inventory designed by Gene Calvert (1993) to measure risk taking propensity. The maximum score was 15 whi ch showed the higher the total score the more the risk taking propensity. The scores from 0-5 were categorized as having low risk taking propensity, scores from 6-10 as having moderate risk taking propensity and 11-15 as high risk taking propensity. The study found that a substantial proportion of respondents had low level of risk taking propensity. However, the study found no differences between male and female respondents. Ozturk and Hancer (2006) analysed the relationship between middle level hotel managers risk taking propensity and corporate entrepreneurship. To analyse the relationship, 106 middle level hotel managers in Didim, Turkey were surveyed for their risk taking propensity. In addition, corporate entrepreneurship scale was also used to identify if the hotels have corporate entrepreneurship activities. The study showed that there was no significant relationship between the risk items and corporate entrepreneurship. Walker, Geddes and Webster (2006), studied the ri sk taking propensities among women business owners and how age affects such activities. The questionnaires were distributed to 1600 small business owners in regional and metropolitan Western Australian and the response rate was 30% (486 questionnaires returned). The study found that there were some gender differences with women being more emotionally risk averse than their male counterparts. With regard to age, younger people, irrespective of gender, were more emotionally and financially risk averse compared to older people. There were also differences between gender and age cohorts in regard to initial business start-up motivation. The study concluded that self-employment might be a viable alternative to mainstream employment for women in general; it may not be the best alternative for all younger women, given that many of them still have to balance between work and family. Nieuwenhuizen and Groenewald (2006) investigated methods or instruments that determine an individuals crea tivity and risk propensity identified that Scheins Career Anchor Instruments and the Neethling Brain Instrument (NBI) as two appropriate instruments to determine creativity and evaluate risk propensity. The results proved that the majority of the identified successful, established entrepreneurs did have a strong tendency towards creativity and propensity for calculated risk taking. Naldi, Nordqvist, Sjoberg and Wiklund (2007) focused on risk taking as one important dimension of entrepreneurial orientation and its impact on family firms. The respondents were the CEOs of the 2455 MSMEs firms obtained from Statistics Sweden (the Bureau of Census) using stratified sampling method. The data was collected using telephone and mail surveys. The study found that risk taking is a distinct dimension of entrepreneurial orientation in family firms and that is positively associated with proactiveness and innovation. Another finding from this study was, even if family firms do take risks while engaged in entrepreneurial activities, they take risk to a lesser extent than non-family firms. Finally, the study also found that risk taking in family firms is negatively related to performance. Tamizharasi and Panchanatham (2010) studied the demographic factors of the small and medium enterprise attitudes in Cuddalore district of Tamilnadu, India. They stated that entrepreneurial attitudes can make the entrepreneurs stronger and more successful in their business. They also found that age and ownership were related significantly to risk taking. The study concluded that entrepreneurial attitudes increased with the increase of the age, income, change in marital status and type of ownership. Summary This chapter presents a review of previous researchers on the risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. In summary, this chapter has attempted to organize the previous research findings to develop an understanding with regards to the topic under investigation. It summarizes the empirical evidence of those in order to address the main issues for the focus of this study. From the literature, the discussion on entrepreneurs risk taking propensity centred on the two variables that influence the risk taking propensity demographic and business characteristics. The influence of these predictors variables on entrepreneurs risk taking propensity has also been reviewed briefly. From the discussion, it can be summarize that demographic and business characteristics are the most important components of risk taking propensity. Studies on demographic characteristics revealed that certain variables are more likely to have positive influence and contribute to development of entrepreneurs risk taking propensity. For example, age has been shown to have significantly positive relation with risk taking propensity. Marital status also seems to be related positively with risk taking propensity. Meanwhile, gender has been found to show inconsistent results. Business ownership and owners business experience have also indicated positive relationship with risk taking propensity. For this study, the researcher selected only these four demographic characteristics due to limited time and resources available for this research. Furthermore, demographic characteristics only form a subset of the numerous independent variable to be examined in this present study. Selection of a few appropriate demographic variables is therefore essential. Another pressing need for research appears to be investigating on how business characteristics of entrepreneurs will relate to their risk taking propensity. It seems that business characteristics measured by size, length of business, type of business , amount of start-up financing, sources of start-up financing, location and number of employees has produced supportive evidence for such relationship. Therefore, for the present study, business characteristics were utilized where business characteristics were measured by size, length of business, type of business, amount of start-up financing, sources of start-up financing, location and number of employees. Finally, considering the lack of empirical research for MSMEs risk taking propensity in Malaysia, especially in the two east coast states, and further research to address these issues is apparently warranted. In the next chapter, will gives insight into research design employed to interrogate the research problem with specific reference to sampling, data collection methods and the statistical techniques utilised.
Saturday, May 16, 2020
Critical Analysis In the George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s novel 1984, much of the society is watched and have no privacy of any kind. Every person in the Party is under surveillance. In effect, these people cannot live freely and independently, but it seems to be an impossible task because of of the Party surveillance, and how they limit thinking and manipulate reality. We can similarly see these concerns and their effects in today s society and the ways the novel also acts as a warning for the future. In 1984 a man named Winston lives in a world covered in cameras. He is under surveillance twenty/four seven. Winston was interfered with his privacy, but also every other citizen is monitored. In 1984 George Orwell said Ã¢â¬Å"There was of course no way of knowing whether you were being watched at any given momentÃ¢â¬ . Winston was not allowed to do anything or show any type of expression. Privacy shows the type of freedom we have and our limits as a citizen. Privacy shows are freedom because it is hard to not be invaded by our own personal things. In today s world privacy has become a problem. Privacy affects my own rights as a citizen. To have my privacy I feel comfortable, then to be invaded and watched for every little thing I do. If I was to be invaded for every single thing I do there would be no such thing as privacy. In Ã¢â¬Å"Privacy Has a PoliticsÃ¢â¬ , Sherry Turkle states, Ã¢â¬Å"How technology guru, become a justification for the U.S government to use the internet t o spy on its citizensÃ¢â¬ . I thinkShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841423 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesIn the novel 1984 by George Orwell, the Party has many strategies and tactics that help them have complete control of the people of Oceania. The control the Party has maintained gives them the ability to manipulate people as a result. The Party takes away the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom to have a say in their government and become their own person. They use their power to an extreme against the people rather than to help the people. The Party takes advantage of every opportunity to instill fear in the citizensRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"1984Ã¢â¬ is a story which takes place in what was then the future of England. The book illustrates a dystopian society in which a government figure named Ã¢â¬Å"Big BrotherÃ¢â¬ rules above all. The country is surrounded by eyes so to speak, devices called Ã¢â¬Å"telescreensÃ¢â¬ are in hou ses and buildings to monitor what all of the citizens are doing via camera. Coupled with that is the existence of the Ã¢â¬Å"Thought PoliceÃ¢â¬ whose sole job is to monitor citizens from committing Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtcrimeÃ¢â¬ which is essentially thinkingRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 923 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1984, is a book written by George Orwell giving the reader a view of what a dystopian government would be like. The government of Oceania controls the lives of itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens; posters of a figure known as Ã¢â¬Å"Big BrotherÃ¢â¬ are seen all over and emphasize that he is always watching itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens. The government enforces rules and regulations amongst itÃ¢â¬â¢s citizens, restricting them from giving their own opinion or even opposing the government. Thoughtcrime, face crime, and double think are all strictlyRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841450 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThose familiar with George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"1984Ã¢â¬ will re call that Ã¢â¬Å"Newspeak was designed not to extend but to diminish the range of thought.Ã¢â¬ I recently felt the weight of this Orwellian ethos when many of my students sent emails to inform me, and perhaps warn me, that my name appears on the Professor Watchlist, a new website created by a conservative youth group known as Turning Point USA. I could sense the gravity in those email messages, a sense of relaying what is to come. The Professor WatchlistÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841377 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvarious types of governments, such include democracy, oligarchy, and more specifically, totalitarian. A totalitarian government gains extensive amounts of control and power over all of their people, and dominate over every aspect of their lives. George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"1984,Ã¢â¬ conveys to its readers how the government presented totalitarianism and obtained control over their citizens. This action by the government compares to the massacre of the Holocaust, which portrayed the act of totalitarianism by aiming discriminationRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841029 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Imagine a world where everything you knew had to be forgotten, and you knew nothing more then what was being told to you. In George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s book 1984 this is exactly the case. Winston Smith, a m iddle aged man, lives a life already planned for him. Smith works at the Ministry of Truth rewriting the news and other articles to follow the teachings of Big Brother. Big Brother is the leader of Oceania, one of three world powers, and aims to rewrite the past to control the present. Oceania is separatedRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 Essay1127 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfirst civilizations of mankind, yet it is difficult find one that is perfect even till today. George Orwell shows an example of this within 1984. 1984 was written based on what Orwell thought the government would be like in 1984. He used his personal knowledge and experience with the government to create his story. The setting of 1984 is set in a superstate where there is a totalitarian government. Within 1984 and the 21st century one major key stands out: corruption rules both governments. Trust isRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 19841026 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn 1984, by George Orwell violence contributed to the plot by having three stages of reintegration. The stages are to learn, understand, and to accept, Winston was forced to learn that 2+2=5 under torture, understanding that the party is good, and seeks power for its own. Winston accepts and understands the Party and Big Brother as soon as Winston wishes the burden of torture on someone else who he loves, and to learn that Big Brother is eternal and that 2+2=5, Winston then is committed and loyalRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfreedom. A growing debate concerning OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s 1984 relevancy is quickly on the rise. OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s fear of a totalitarian society led him to write this book as he lived during the totalitarian movement in Russia. The fear of a totalitarian society spreading sparked his fear and wrote this book to make people understand that it is not benef icial to society. I feel that with the the National Security Agency in the United States, the issue and relevancy of 1984 has never been higher. The public is discoveringRead MoreAnalysis Of George Orwell s 1984 1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagespossibility of intrusion that makes one ask themselves, how close is our society to becoming one where every action is monitored? How close is the idea of western civilization to becoming a police state, such as in North Korea, or the one in George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s novel, Ã¢â¬Ë1984Ã¢â¬â¢? North American society is drifting towards becoming a police state at an ever increasing rate. This is shown in how North Americans are slowly losing their rights, the police force acting above the law, and the monitoring of citizens
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
In 1985, a report published by the Royal Commission on the Economic Union and Development Prospects of Canada recommended that Canada establish a free trade agreement with the United States (Quinlan, 318). Brian Mulroney took the advice and set foot to establish such an agreement. This lead to the creation of the Free Trade Agreement through the process of the Free Trade Debate. The Free Trade Debate has strengthened our economy and has reinforced our relationships with neighbouring countries. Therefore, the Free Trade Debate has positively impacted Canada into making Canada what it is today. To start, MulroneyÃ¢â¬â¢s government started negotiations with the USA in September 1985 and struck a deal in October 1987. The FTA covered major areasÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Studies have found that about 75 percent of job creation in Canada was due to the FTA (Tilson). Furthermore, one in four jobs in Canada have been tied to international trade (Quinlan, 326). As a result, today, abo ut 5.2 million Canadian jobs depend on trade with the United States (Tilson). Moving on, imports and exports have increased drastically since the FTA took effect in 1989. According to the United States Census Bureau, Canadian imports had increased by 9.6 percent within the first year and an astonishing 23.3 percent in a matter of four years from 1988. Exports had also increased 7.7 percent within the first year and 19.1 percent within four years (United States). One major impact as a result of the Free Trade Debate was also the successor to the FTA which was the North American Free Trade Agreement. NAFTA was basically an upgraded version of the FTA which incorporated Mexico into the North American trading bloc. Established on 1 January 1994, NAFTA created a trading market of about 370 million people (Wilkinson). Although this was only 8 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population, it controlled about 31 percent of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth (Quinlan, 323). Moreover, NAFTA added many gre at benefits to Canada which has helped Canada in the long run. NAFTA covered topics such as free trade, no limits on imports, equal access to natural resources, Chapter 11, and a dispute panel. Firstly, the
Locke vs Hobbes When we think of evolution, especially in scientific terms, we think of species emerging and changing physically, since we are observing the results over long periods of time. Evolution, though, if you can call it that, is a fleeting thing when observed in a smaller timeline, and we find it hard to understand that it is simply the process of life. We appeared on this world only 250,000 years ago, and as far as we can tell, we have not changed much physically, except for the slight racial differences which are slowly disappearing as we mingle more. We are not only changing and evolving physically, but more profoundly mentally, and rather than individually, more as aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It soon became evident that resources once given to an autocratic figure could now easily be shared among the populace. As Locke infers, humanity realized their true nature. The difference between HobbeÃ¢â¬â¢s and LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s beliefs on our human nature, the social contract, and the role of government within, are like night and day. HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ views on human nature are dark and untrusting. His views on human nature were based on the belief than humans are mere objects reacting to their base desires in an effort to satisfy them. This hints that we are nothing more than biological machines reacting to our most basic animal cravings. As such, when we act together as a society, we require someone to make critical decisions for us all in our daily lives governing our dealings with each other, and that requires a supreme leader or sovereign body. HobbeÃ¢â¬â¢s views, of course, assume that the leader or sovereign body will always act to assure the personal liberty of the citizens. As we know from history, though, this is far from the case. Oddly, Hobbes did not consider religious enthusiasm or fanaticism to be an integral part of this philosophy. It requires a leader or sovereign body that is wise and has the interest of the citizenry in mind. In his views, we will always be free and independent to do whatever we want to satisfy our desires without regard to others,
The sales for Luke BryanÃ¢â¬â¢s new album keeps improving; rating his fourth album number 2 on the charts for music today. Selling more than half a million copies in single week, the man candy country artist has raised to the top of the charts with his new album Ã¢â¬Å"Crash My PartyÃ¢â¬ . The album includes his number one billboard single Ã¢â¬Å"Crash My PartyÃ¢â¬ as well as other country and hip hop songs. It gives you a mix of sounds you wouldnt usually hear from country music artists. From rock to hip hop this albums variety of tones keeps you wanting more. For those who love the upbeat party songs to the cute heartfelt love songs will absolutely enjoy this album. Luke does a great job of mixing it up; creating a fun album. His memorizing voice and lyrics give you that small connection that leaves you satisfied. Each set of lyrics comes with emotion; leaving a story behind it. We will write a custom essay sample on Crash My Party by Luke Bryan or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page One of my personal favorites Ã¢â¬Å"ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s My Kind of NightÃ¢â¬ gives you as urge to dance and have fun like most other tracks on the album. Luke provides the listener with excitement and joy about life. This album takes country music to whole other level; not only satisfying country music listeners but other genres listeners as well. Ã¢â¬Å"Crash My PartyÃ¢â¬ is an unbelievable album and would recommend it to anyone. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s absolutely worth every penny spent on it!